We all know about that there are ups and downs in the stock market every day, we often hear about that the market is more than its value today or under-valued today also, that this or that stock is expensive or cheap etc. So what does that really means in the subject to stocks?
For example, if the share price of a company is Rs.100 and share price of another company is Rs.500 that is the share price of one company are more than another one that does not mean the company having high share price is expensive than the company having low. Share prices of the companies are always identified regarding EPS (Earnings per Share).
EPS is the portion of the profit of the company allocated to each outstanding share of common stock. EPS works as a calculator of profitability of any company. More often, sometimes the data sources make the calculation easier by using a number of shares that stands out at the end of a particular period. The term EPS represents the part of the net gross of a company, taxes and stock dividends. EPS is also a calculation of company’s profitability on the shareholder point of view.
When one is purchasing shares of any company then he is purchasing the future earnings on a stock of that company. Also, if the EPS is high you have to be prepared to pay the high price and if it is not, then you will not get prepared to pay a high price. EPS is calculated by dividing post-tax profits from the number of shares in issue.
For a long time, the investors and stock analysts use price-earnings ratios which are named as P/E ratios. P/E ratios are the ratios of share prices to earnings. P/E ratio is calculated by the price of a share of a stock divided by EPS (Earnings per Share) of the stock.
The P/E ratio is used to help the investors to know the time period in terms of years in the value of earnings a company will need to make the production to get its current market share value.
Two types of measurement issues are there while calculating P/E ratio. First one discusses the period at which price of the shares and earnings are calculated. The price shown in a P/E is generally the current market price of the stock such as weekly or monthly average ratio. Second one concerns about earning for the future predicted earnings for the next year.
Limitations of P/E Ratio
P/E ratio shows nothing but the EPS growth prospects of a company to the investors and that is the big limitation of P/E ratio. The company having high growth rate seems comfortable to buy even having high P/E ratio, perceiving that increase in EPS will somehow assist the P/E back down to a low level. If the company has not that much growth rate, you may look after the stock has lower P/E ratio also it is often not easy to know whether a high P/E multiple is due to the growth or just the stock gets overvalued.
P/E ratio once calculated using an estimation of further earnings is not able enough to provide the information whether the P/E is suitable enough for the current growth rate of the company. To fulfill this limitation, another type of ratio is used named PEG (Price Earnings to Growth) ratio.
PEG Ratio is calculated by dividing PE to EPS growth rate over the next year. PEG ratio propose that the P/E is in the line of growth when a PEG is greater than one it means that the stock is overpriced.
Undoubtedly, the P/E ratio is very famous and easy to calculate, but also there are many drawbacks that the investors should keep in mind while using it to evaluate values of the stock market. Straightly, no single ratio can give you all the information you want to know about stocks. So, try to use multiple types of ratios to get full-proof information about stock and its valuation.